Grammar

Today we were learning the proper way to form accusative case — of nouns, adjectives, and numbers.

To summarize (Dima, correct me if I’m wrong, OK?):

1) If the word ends with a vowel, you just append “t” to the end. The only other thing to consider here is that if the previous vowel is “a” or “e”, you change it to “á” and “é” respectively.

Examples: “kicsit”, “barnát”, “leckét”.

2) So, let’s say it ends with a consonant. If it’s an adjective, it’s still pretty simple: you add “-at” or “-et” respectively, depending on the vowel harmony.

Examples: “magasat”, “kéket”.

3) With nouns you have three suffixes to choose from, again, using vowel harmony: “-ot”, “-et”, or “-öt”.

Examples: “virágot”, “széket”, “gyümölcsöt”.

4) However, if the noun is short — just one syllable — then instead of “-ot” you add “-at”.

Examples: “házat”.

5) And there are just a few adjectives requiring “-ot” ending; we didn’t learn any of them except for “nagyon” — so, it’s “nagyonot”.

Examples: are you kidding?

6) And if a noun ends with a “special” consonant, then it’s still “-t” ending, not “-ot”, “-et”, or “-öt”. Those consonants are: “r”, “j”, “l”, “ly”, “n”, “ny”, “s”, “sz”, “z”, and “zs”.

Examples: “asztalt”, “szekrényt”, “autóbuszt”

7) As for numbers, there is only one number that accepts “-ot” ending: “hatot”. Others, again, require “-at”, “-et”, or “-öt”, depending on vowel harmony.

Examples: “nyolcat”, “négyet”, “ötöt”.

8) Of course, there are tons of exceptions even to these rules.

Examples: “könyvet”, “földet”, “járművet”, “lovat” (from “ló”, meaning “horse”), “vizet”... lots of them.

Update:

9) plural — only “-at” and “-et” can go after the “-k” that ends a plural form (of anything). Same holds for words that describe things belonging to somebody: “virágomat”

Dictionary

“ellen” — “against”, and “ellenfél” — “opponent”

“különleges” — “only one”.

“névmás” — “pronoun”

“nyelvtan” — “grammar”

“hasonló” — “similar”, and “összehasonlít” — “compare”

“rag” — “suffix”, and “ragoz” — “conjugate”

“adag” — “portion”

“kihívás” — “challenge”; from “hív” — “call”, and “ki-” — “out”, so it’s like “act of calling someone out”.

Special verbs

There are some verbs that accept an infinitive of some other verb as it’s subject. Note, that it’s subject, not object; so, the action itself is treated as “doing” something, and the one who is performing the action (if there is one) is an object, so s/he is “suffering” it.

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“kell” — “has to be done”. So, for example, “kell főzni” — “cooking is necessary”. To specify, who exactly needs it, you can use dative: “kell főzni nekem” — “I need to cook”.

“tilos” — “ forbidden”; “tilos dohanyozni” — “smoking is forbidden”.

“szabad” — “allowed”; opposite to “tilos”

“lehet” — “possible”.